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This page assumes that galaxies are not really dying objects from a 'Big Bang' but are in fact self propagating structures that continually regenerate the universe around them. It is based on the The Steady State Galaxy Theory by Rufus Young who I can only assume may have passed on the greener pastures as I cannot find him anymore. However, I was fortunate enough to have retained a copy on my computer.
While at university in the eighties I read a Scientific American article 'The central parsec of the galaxy'. It said that something at the centre appeared to be rotating at 90 degrees to the plane of the galaxy and a spiral arm appeared to be unfurling from the centre. Ari Brynjolfsson in the latter parts of his paper speculates about the large rotating flat disc with unbelievable strong electromagnetic fields. It has been shown that electromagnetic forces far outperform gravity in shaping the universe. The electromagnetic forces produced by a rotating super dense object may be capable of projecting by the Lorenz force charged particles (protons & electrons) at relativistic speeds overcoming the intense gravitational field.
Now we get out our toy gyroscope. Instead of standing it on end, we balance it on its side or hang it in a horizontal position by a thread. We see that a natural consequence is that it must precess in the horizontal plane. So this super dense object rotating at (90 degrees to the plane of the galaxy should do likewise. This creates the the two spiral arms. If we do the same again with the gyroscope's axis tilted at 45 degrees, we find the precession is a lot faster. A galactic regenerator spraying its charged particles out of the plane of rotation would produce an elliptical galaxy.
(Gyroscope demo on You Tube http://youtu.be/MebxIEcpX7w )
Rufus says that barred spirals would result from the particles being confined to the magnetic field until further away. The way the shape changes in the arm also reminds me of the graph of the Lorenz factor as speeds change from being very relativistic to less relativistic speeds. Could it be a combination?
We have heard it said in BB Cosmology that at the centre its a singularity and the known laws of physics break down. However, we are not going down that route and can therefore speculate. We can imagine that as red giants suffer the accretion of the black hole, the enormous gravitational tidal forces separate the elements. Just like a giant centrifuge, the lighter elements/particles move to the centre. Here the gravitational effect of the object is reduced due to the pull being uniform all round. We can imagine a plasma of electrons rotating at the centre surrounded by a plasma of protons in the opposite direction. This is acted acted on by the Lorenz force and like rays in a cathode ray tube are projected at relativistic speeds out of their projection system. As they leave the particles combine to make hydrogen and 25% helium is also produced or projected in the process. Helium nuclei are four times heavier than hydrogen nuclei. Very large stars will be produced and go supernova early and produce the heavier elements further out in the spiral arms where stars like our sun are born.
Galaxies would not be dieing as in big bang cosmology. The galactic regenerator would continually maintain the galaxy by recycling. They have negative entropy and restore the order.
That's why galaxies have TWO spiral arms although some may be more wound up than others.
Cosmic rays are believed to originate in supernova explosions. 90% are high speed protons but this is a cosmic conundrum. In this model they are the ones that got away and did not take part in star formation.
The magnetic field lines of the galaxy appear to follow the spiral arms and so they should.
There are an abundance of red giants near the centre. So there should be. They are awaiting accretion at the edge of the disc.
There are a lot of massive short lived new stars in the central parts. They will go supernova and produce second generation stars for the outer regions of the galaxy. See a trip to the galactic centre.
Why is the galaxy surrounded by a halo of globular clusters? We can speculate that when it first formed after being spawned from another galaxy that its axis may have been tilted and therefore an elliptical galaxy. After a few rotations the axis stabilised into its present stable plane and it was transformed into a spiral galaxy.
The apparent age of the universe of around 13 billion years could be the time taken for the average galaxy to completely recycle itself.
Is there a galactic regenerator at the centre of every galaxy? Perhaps galaxies are not dying remnants of a big bang, but double ended pinwheels that generate the universe. We need the radial velocity of all stars of various ages on a straight line from the centre of the galaxy through the solar system & beyond. Anyone up for it?
19 December 2013 - I have just been watching the lift off of the European Space agency's Gaia telescope. I look forward to the findings.
There is one thing I cannot get my head around. What would be the electromagnetic configuration inside this object that could propel protons at relativistic speeds in opposite directions out and away from the object?
If the above model were true then the implications for science, philosophy and religion would be immense.
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Footnote 21 Jan 2021: The BBC's December Science Focus magazine speculated on White Holes as predicted by Einstein's theory of gravity, saying that a black hole should have an equivalent white hole somewhere else in the universe from which matter gushes, but none have ever been detected. Seems more like a magic trick to me. My reply for the 'Conversation' feature must not have been deemed worthy or they have to go with tradition. We would say they are obviously at the poles of the black holes from which matter 'gushes' to form the spiral arms.
Just look at the Whirlpool galaxy. Is that not a picture of a galaxy regenerating itself? It isn't going to die. It's a double ended pinwheel.